高考概要写作技巧(下)

七、例题详解:

   阅读下面短文,根据其内容写一篇60词左右的内容概要,并把总词数填入括号内。

Parents everywhere praise their kids. Jenn Berman, author of The A to Z Guide to Raising Happy and Confident Kids, says, “We’vegone to the opposite extreme of a few decades ago when parents tended to be more strict.” By giving kids a lot of praise, parents think they’re building their children’s confidence, when, in fact, it may be just the opposite. Too much praise can backfire and, when given in a way that’s insincere, make kids afraid to try new things or take a risk for fear of not being able to stay on top where their parents’ praise has put them.

Still, don’t go too far in the other direction. Not giving enough praise can be just as damaging as giving too much. Kids will feel like they’re not good enough or that you don’t care and, as a result, may see no point in trying hard for their accomplishments.

So what is the right amount of praise? Experts saythat the quality of praise is more important than the quantity. If praise is sincere and focused on the effort not the outcome, you can give it as often as your child does something that deserves a verbal reward.” We should especially recognize our children’s efforts to push themselves and work hard to achieve a goal, “says Donahue, author of Parenting Without Fear: LettingGo of Worry and Focusing on What Really Matters. “One thing to remember is that it’s the process not the end product that matters.”

Your son may not be the best basketball player onhis team. But if he’s out there every day and playing hard, you should praise his effort regardless of whether his team wins or loses. Praising the effort and not the outcome can also mean recognizing your child when she has worked hard to clean the yard, cook dinner, or finish a book report. But whatever itis, praise should be given on a case-by-case basis and be proportionate (相称的) to the amount of effort your child has put into it.

文章特点:

数字:340字

段落:4段

解题步骤:1.以段落为单位进行逐句阅读;2. 甄别中心句和淘汰细节句;3. 整合中心信息。

第一段:一共有4句话

第一句为“疑似中心句”:1. Parents praise their kids;

第二句为引用例子支撑说明第一句的观点,人名+书名+引语,属于起解释说明作用的细节部分,因此可以剔除。Jenn Berman, author of The A to Z Guide to Raising Happy and Confident Kids, says, “We’ve gone to the opposite extreme of a few decades ago when parents tended to be more strict.”。剩下有效信息opposite。

第三句:By giving kids a lot of praise, parents think they’re building their children’s confidence, when, in fact, it may be just the opposite. 删除介词短语By的信息,剩下有效信息build their children’s confidence和opposite;

第四句:Too much praise can backfire and, when given in away that’s insincere, make kids afraid to try new things or take a risk for fear of not being able to stay on top where their parents’ praise has put them.

整合:Given in an insincere way, too much praise makes kids afraid to try new things or take a risk.

第一段有效信息:Parents praise their kids + opposite + build their children’s confidence + Given in an insincere way, too much praise makes kids afraid to try new things or take a risk.

用上位词harm, drawbacks或disadvantages代替细节make kids afraid to try new things or take a risk。

第一段整合:To build their confidence, parents praise theirkids, but too much praise may lead to opposite effects (given insincerely) /great harm,还可以用overpraising代替too much praise。

第二段:一共有3句话,逐句阅读并整合关键信息点。

第一句:Still, don’t go too far in the other direction. 该句其承上启下的作用。

第二句:Not giving enough praise can be just as damaging asgiving too much. 该句可以视为中心句,因为giving too much在第一段已经谈论过,因此可以弃用,剩下有效信息Not giving enough praise can also be damaging。

第三句:Kids will feel like they’re not good enough or thatyou don’t care and, as a result, may see no point in trying hard for their accomplishments,显然该句是前一句damaging的补充信息,也就是害处的具体表现,因此可以忽略。

第二段的有效信息:Not giving enough praise can be also damaging,或用概括性的上位词underpraising代替not giving enough praise。

第三段:一共有5句话,逐句阅读并整合关键信息点。

第一句:So what is the right amount of praise? 该句切入段落中心词the right amount of praise。

第二句:Experts say that the quality of praise is moreimportant than the quantity. 疑似中心句。

第三句: If praise is sincere and focused on the effort not the outcome, you can give it as often as your child does something that deserves a verbal reward.”主要信息为the effort not the outcome。

第四句:We should especially recognize our children’s efforts to push themselves and work hard to achieve a goal, “says Donahue, author ofParenting Without Fear: Letting Go of Worry and Focusing on What Really Matters. 该句是第三句的延续,起解释作用,因此可以忽略。

第五句:”One thing to remember is that it’s theprocess not the end product that matters.”主要信息the process not the end product that matters.

第四段:一共有4句话,逐句阅读。

第一句Your son may not be the best basketball player onhis team. 举例,为细节,可以忽略。

第二句But if he’s out there every day and playing hard,you should praise his effort regardless of whether his team wins or loses. 有用信息为praise his effort,但该信息点在第三段已经提过,因此不必再提。

第三句Praising the effort and not the outcome can alsomean recognizing your child when she has worked hard to clean the yard, cookdinner, or finish a book report. 中心信息为praise and recognize the effort and not the outcome,为重复的信息点,可以忽略;其他为举例,忽略。

第四句But whatever it is, praise should be given on acase-by-case basis and be proportionate (相称的) to the amount of effort your child has put intoit.

中心信息为be proportionate to the amount of effort, 可以用match, correspond甚至be equal to等替换be proportionate to。

第四段中心信息:praise his effort + praise and recognize the effortand not the outcome + be proportionate to the amount of effort。

整合Parents should praise and recognize their effortrather than outcome and it should correspond with the effort.

概要例文:

 Parents praise their children to promotetheir confidence, but too much praise may result in opposite effects.(要点一)However,Kids may feel discouraged when not given enough praise. (要点二)Actually,what really matters is the quality rather than quantity of praise, which shouldbe sincere and concentrate on process instead of result. (要点三)Praiseoffers encouragement and recognition, and it should be based on the fact andcorrespond with the effort.(要点四)

老师习作1:

While overpraising stops children from beingadventurous and leaves them playing safe, underpraising kills their innerconfidence and motivation for success. According to experts, proper praise liesin the quality instead of quantity. Parents are advised to give hearty praisefor kids’ efforts rather than outcomes. Such praise should be based on one caseat a time and in alignment with how hard they have tried.(备考组邱老师友情提供)

老师习作2:

Parents praise kids to promote their confidence. Too much praisingburdens kids with parents’ expectations while not enough praising  weakens their motivation. Actually quality matters more than quantity. Parents are advised to be sincere and focus on the process when  praising. It is also advisable to base their praise on facts and vary it to  reflect the efforts kids have made. (备考组老师友情提供)

附加学生习作:

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